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"The Role of Iranian Migrant Scholars in the Advancement of Sciences during the Qutb Shahi Period in Dakan”
 



The founder of the Qutb Shahi dynasty Sultan-Quli Qutbul Mulk (ruled from 918 A.H./1512 A.D.-950 A.H./1543 A.D.) belonged to the cultured and noble family of Qara Quyunulu, in Iran as such he brought with him a good literary savior.(1)The Qutb Shahi rulers invited great scholars, poets , historians ,religious Divines and the Sufis from Iran to settle down in the kingdom. The learned Iranian migrants to the Qutb Shahi dominions made the kingdom seat of learning and extensive literary activities. The Qutb Shahi rulers and the nobility, who were mostly Iranians, were genuine patron of arts and sciences. The kingdom made an invaluable contribution to the cause of letters and bequeathed to posterity a vast treasure of knowledge which can never sink into oblivion. All the Qutb Shahi rulers were highly educated and were great patrons of art and learning .Much as they exulted in a selfless discharge of their duties as rulers, they inculcated in them deep love of arts and sciences. Poets and litterateurs were equally at home with them. They even composed poetry and penned volumes in prose, with the result that literary pursuits had a fresh of life during their regime.(2)
Most of the elite and nobility of Golkonda was drawn from it developed a great degree of cultured exchange from the two countries. (3) Most of the Iranian poets, epistolarians, historiographers, Ulema,Muftis, physicians and other visited Golkonda and some of them settled there. The Persian epistolography developed by Iranian migrants is the best artistic prose in Golkonda .Migration of great Ulama from Golkonda created a great volume of religious literature which surpassed the size of any other branch of Persian literature in Golkunda. This Shi’ite Ulama religious literature relates to the interpretation of the Holy Quran, theology, eschatology, jurisprudence and prayers.
Iranian scholars in Golkonda showed profound interest in philosophy, ethics and mysticism. They introduced almost all important Greek, Arab and Iranian thinkers in Golkonda society through Persian literature.
Iranian scientists and physicians in Golkonda contributed vastly to the study of medicine, physics, meteorology and mathematics.
The Iranian scholars produced considerable amount of historiography work in Golkonda. They highlighted the political and cultural aspects in their works and also paid attention to the civil and military administration and economic life of the people .The Iranian scholars created specialized work in various disciplines. The encyclopedias written during the Qutb Shahi period by them is no way inferior to modern encyclopedias.
They also compiled dictionaries of specialized nature. They also prepared comprehensive gazetteers of in Golkonda. Official documents, bonds and deeds and a huge number of Persian epigraphs are also the ever-lasting contribution of Iranian scholars in Golkonda. The seals and coins produced in Golkonda is also the valuable contribution of the Iranian scholars and technicians settled in the kingdom. Extensive Persian literature written by Iranian scholars in Golkonda is the part of golden cultural heritage of Indo-Pakistan sub-continent.
Sultan-Quli (ruled from 918 A.H./1512 A.D.-950 A.H./1543 A.D.)
The Golkonda during the reign of Sultan-Quli Qutbul Mulk boomed with scholars and literary magnates. He formed a literary club known as (Aash Khana) where all men of letters used to assemble. (4)
Jamsheed Quli (950 A.H./1543 A.D.- 957 A.H./ 1550A.D.)
Sultan Quli’s successor, Jamsheed Quli (950 A.H./1543 A.D.- 957 A.H./ 1550A.D.) showed a keen aptitude for poetic compositions. He was poet of merits wrote verses under the pseudonym of “Jamsheed”. At times, he delved into extempore recitation of poetry. We have quite a few poetic compositions from the facile pen of Jamshid in the Tarikh-i-Muhammad Qutb Shah, full of romantic ideas.(5)
Mulla Waqui Nishapuri
Jamshid-Quli, second ruler of the dynasty appointed Mulla Muhammad Sharif Waqui Nishapuri, from Nishapur (eastern Iran, in the Khurasan province) as poet-laureate at his court.(6) Mulla Nishapuri played an important part in the evolution of Persian poetry in the Qutb Shahi Kingdom.(7)
He wrote the famous book on history by name Majma-ul-Akhbar or Najm-ul-Akhbar. Professor Devare writes about Majma-ul-Akhbar that “it is a comprehensive general history of the Muslim world written at the behest of Ibrahim Quli Qutub Shah.(8)
Mulla Qasim Tabassi
A great poet from Tabas (north-eastern who came to Golkonda during Jamsheed-Quli’s reign was rewarded with gifts and property by sultan. The famous book written by him is Insha-i Qasim Tabassi.(9) This book was completed during Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah’s period. It comprises official letters from Ibrahim-Quli to the rulers of Bijapur and the Safawid monarch.
He held the same position in the court of Ibrahim Quli which the Munshi-ul-Mamalik or Dabir-ul-Mulk held during the times of his successors.
His language is supported by fundamental tenets of Islamic faith. The Waqf Nama drafted by him is an instance, how even in official writings he cites all necessary verses of the Holy Quran which enlightened the legal, religious and the moral justification of an act of endowment. He makes use of rhyme words but at pleasant distances. Most of the devices adopted by him are connotative. His style manifests an intellectual and spiritual emancipation which is not tamed and intimidated by the formalities of court. Freedom of his mind has made his writings lucid, crisp and lively. Mulla Qasim Tabassi, is the first prose artist of Golkonda, who was capable of being natural in his writing of all occasions.The period subsequent to Mulla Qasim Tabassi, seems to have been encouraging rhetorical artifice.
Mulla Husain Tabassi
Mulla Husain Tabassi, an Iranian migrant from Tabas(north-eastern),was patronized by Sultan-Quli Qutbul Mulk. He wrote the book Marqub-ul-Qulub.(10)The author of Tarikh-i-Muhammad Qutb Shah had quoted extensively in his book from Marqub-ul-Qulub. Fursi, the great Iranian poet, lauded Mulla Husain Tabassi in his Nasb Nameh. Mulla Husain Tabassi was also Chief Justice of Sultan Quli’s reign. His book, the Marghul-ul-Qulub, has already been referred to in connection with the reign of Ibrahim-Quli’s father,Sultan-Quli. He lived on and wrote another book, the Saidiyah(11)’the Book of the Game’ at the instance of Ibrahim Qutb in 983A.H/1575-76A.D.The book consists of an introduction ,ten chapters and an Epilogue, and deals with all aspects of the game and its limits set for it by Islamic jurisprudence. Its manuscript copies are preserved in Mulla Firaz Library, and the Library of the Asiatic Society of Bengal,
Munshi Khushdil
There is another and a shorter work called Tawarikh Qutb Shahi reputed to be the work Munshi Khushdil, private secretary of Prince Haidar-Quli. This is a much small composition and only an abridgement of Fursi’s work. This book is also divided into four parts: part-1 deals with the birth of the founder of the dynasty up to his accession to power, part-2 with his rule, part-3 with the reign of Ibrahim Qutb Shah and part-4 with the reign of Muhammad-Quli Qutb Shah .This history of the Qutb Shahi dynasty was written on the model of the Bahman Nama of Azari .A unique manuscript of this history is preserved in the Library of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta.(12)
Ibrahim-Quli Qutb Shah(957 A.H./1550 A.D.-988 A.H./1580 A.D.)
The reign of Ibrahim Quli, when the foundation of the kingdom had been firmly laid, ushered in an era of patronage of arts and sciences .Ibrahim was a man of polite learning and liberal education and also bore a love of knowledge. He made scores of school where the children were imparted basic primary education. He rallied round him a galaxy of learned and scholars and made the best of time in their company .The learned conferred with the king even when the latter was on his tour of the dominions and enlivened his company by their palatable discussions. These scholars were the receipt of royal honors and some of those who illumined the court of Ibrahim Quli were prominent Iranian scholars like: Amir Shah ,Muhammad Anju, Amir Imaduddin, Mahmood Shirazi, Qasim Beg Shirazi and Husain Quli Mirza. They were all profound scholars and masters in logic. (13) He was one who is known for his lavish patronization of Telugu poets. He was so popular among them that he was compared with the Hindu gods by some of the Telugu poets. In spite of this his period saw the compilation of three Persian books, two on the subject of history by Khurshah and Sharif and one over the games and sports by an Iranian scholar Husain Tabassi.(14) In, 1512A.D. Sultan Quli Qutubul Mulk declared Shi’ite faith as the state religion which resulted in the opening of a new chapter in the Iran-Haidarabad relations. The Qutb Shahi sultans encouraged scholarly, educated and qualified Iranian to migrate to Qutb Shahi Kingdom in waves. Thus large number of Iranian religious scholars, poets, calligraphers, architects, artisans, scholars, builders, engineers came down to Golkonda in large numbers. This migration of Iranian to Golkonda continued right up to the end of the Qutb Shahi rule. The Qutb Shahi sultans not only patronized these immigrants but appointed them to higher posts of administration.(15)
There was tremendous migration of learned Iranians to Qutb Shahi kingdom during the reign of Ibrahim Quli. With their migration, Dakkan became the cradle of Iranian poets, writers, religious scholars, calligraphers, painters and artisans, who richly contributed to the progress of culture, literature, architecture, poetry, medicine, theology and jurisprudence in Dakkan.
Little research had been carried out on the most valuable manuscripts covering the fields of religious literature like tafseer, hadith, jurisprudence, theology, ethics, philosophy etc. present in various libraries of India especially in Haidarabad.
Khurshah Husaini
One of the famous books dedicated to Ibrahim-Quli Qutb Shah was Khurshah bin Qubad al-Husaini’s voluminous ‘History of the World’ stressing the history of pre-Islamic and post-Islamic Iran, the dynasties which ruled the lands of the Muslims, the Sultans who held sway in north India, Bengal, Malwa, Gujrat, and finally the history of the Bahmanis of the Dakkan down to the death of Mahmud Shah Bahmani in 1518A.D. This book was written in the reign of Ibrahim-Quli and was completed in 972A.H/1564-65A.D. It preceded by twenty five years, Mulla Waqui Nishapuri’s Majma-al-Akhbar another chronicle produced at Golkonda during the same period.
The author, Khurshah Husaini, does not specifically mention the name of his work anywhere in the text, but it is commonly known as Tarikh-i Elchi Nizam Shah. (16)
Haji Abarkhuhi
Haji Abarkhuhi was born at Abarkhuh near yazd City (Central Iran). His father died when Haji was only a small child. He took to trade and traveled for this purpose to ShirazCity and Kirman. After sometime he migrated to India and secured a position in the court of Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah at Golkonda .He was later patronized by Muhammad-Quli Qutb Shah in whose praise he wrote a number of poems .(17) The poet compiled his poetic works at the instance of a prominent noble of the Qutb Shahi dynasty Mustafa Khan Ardestani. An incomplete manuscript of the poets’ ‘Diwan’ preserved in the Majlis Library at Tehran comprising 2400 lines contains the following: (1) Qasidas , including religious poems (2) A small romantic Mathnawi called ‘Nazir-wa-Manzur’, (3) ‘Ghazals’ arranged alphabetically covering more than half of the Diwan, (4) Ruba’iayat. The manuscript abruptly finished at page 217
The most attractive feature of his ghazals is that they seem to have been composed on the model of Sa’di and Hafiz and he fairly succeeded in imitating his masters. (18)
Muhammad-Quli Qutb Shah (988 A.H./1580 A.D.-1020 A.H./1612 A.D.)
Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah was a devoted Shi’ite and practiced his faith openly. He greatly strengthened the relations with Safawid Iran. He himself was an artist by nature. The advent of Allama Mir Mumin Astarabadi as the Peshwa-e Sultanat of the Qutb Shahi kingdom during his reign spurred the vast influx of Iranian poets, physicians and scholars into the kingdom. He composed a ‘Diwan’ in Persian, which is written in nastaliq style. It is reserved in the Salar Jung Museum Library, Haidarabad. It contains more than three thousand couplets. (19)
Meer Shah Meer Isfahani
Meer Taqiuddin Meer Shah Isfahani came to Haidarabad during Ibrahim Quli’s reign and attained the position of Peshwa-e-Saltanat. He was also a famous poet, scholar and warrior of his period. (20)
Kami Shirazi
Kami Shirazi was a famous poet during the Qutb Shahi period. He lived during the period of Muhammad–Quli Qutb Shah and was the associate of Muhammad Amin Shahristani famous as Ruh-al-Ameen.(21)
Mirza Kashani
Mirza Muhammad Shareef Kashani, the famous Persian poet of the Qutb Shahi period was the pupil of famous Iranian poet Muhtasham Kashani. He was affiliated to the court of Muhammad- Quli Qutb Shah. The copies of his ‘Diwan’ is preserved in India Office Library, London City. (22)


Hakeem Arif-i-Egi
Hakeem Arif-i Egi arrived Haidarabad in 1014 A.H/1605-6 A.D. and entered the Qutb Shahi service in Muhammad-Quli Qutb Shah’s reign. He wrote laudatory verses and was magnificently rewarded for it. Arif was a distinguished poet. He was the author of ‘Andarz Nameh’ or ‘the Book of Admonitions’, which is modeled on the ‘Shahnamah’ and comprises 2300 couplets. He also composed ‘Saqi Namah’ which deserves a very high place in the Persian literature.(23)
Adai Yazdi
Mir Muhammad Mumin Adai Yazdi belonged to the Sada’at family of YazdCity (Iran).He was a famous poet, physician and philosopher who came to Haidarabad in 1030 A.H. He was more inclined towards ‘Rubai’ form. (24)
Mir Mumin Astarabadi
Mir Mumin Astarabadi was a statesman, a litterateur, a divine and a polished courtier, and he exercised a great influence on the person of the Sultan. He was without doubt one of the chief advisors of the Sultan in planning the new city of Haidarabad. He caused the rapid introduction and universalization of Shia’ism in the kingdom. Shia’ism had a hold on the court of Haidarabad to such an extent that the court circles of the capital appeared like a replica of Safawid Iran
Mir Mumin attempted to make Haidarabad a new City eIsfahanCity and thus he planned the city on the architectural style and pattern of IsfahanCity, the capital of Safawid Iran.(25) Thus, he called Haidarabad as ‘Isfahan-e-Nau’(New Isfahan).His political ,cultural, social and literary achievements have to be discussed in a separate section.
His poetical works were collected and compiled in the form of a “diwan” a copy of which covering 175 folios, is preserved in the India Office Library, LondonCity. This diwan comprises Ghazals in an alphabetical order in honor of Muhammad-Quli Qutb Shah. (26)
Mir Mumin excelled both in the panegyric and lyric forms. In his gazals, the poet depicts the true sentiments of lovers and as such he succeeds in widening the scope of popular appeal to his lyrics. (27)
It was the patronage of learning on the part of the court at Haidarabad which made poets of Iran throng into the city, and Haidarabad became a place of refuge for reputed Iranian poets because of royal patronage offered to them by the Qutb Shahi sultans. There were a number of minor poets of Iran who came and settled down in Haidarabad and ended their life there. Apart from this a kind of fashion had set in for travelers of note coming from Iran to an addressIndian Court addressStreet to come and pass a few years at Haidarabad as well, for they were sure of being accorded a warm welcome with the prospect of leaving Haidarabad much richer than when they arrived there.
Mirza Muhammad Amin Shahristani ‘Ruh al-Amin’
One of the leading Iranian poets who also became an outstanding personality of QutbShahi Kingdom was Mirza Muhammad Amin Shahristani ‘Ruh al-Amin’. He came to Haidarabad and was forthwith appointed Mir Jumla by the Sultan on Mir Mumin’s recommendation in 1011A.H/1602-3A.D.He proved to be the “strong man” of QutbShahi Kingdom and Muhammad-Quli Qutb Shah relegated practically all governmental powers to him both on the civil side and in the military field. He remained at the helm of affairs till the death of Sultan ten years later. (28)
In spite of his obvious preoccupations as a statesman and a soldier, Mirza Muhammad Amin Shahristani ‘Ruh al-Amin’ found time to compose some fine poetry. He belonged to renowned noble family of Musavi Sayyid in Shahristan near Isfahan City. Members of his family commanded great respect at the Safawid court. Mirza Amin Shahristani had a fine literary taste and was poet of great order. He was so confident of his own capacity that he in a way challenged such a masterly work as the Khamsa Nizamiya of the great poet Nizami Ganjawi, and while at Haidarabad began to compose his own khamsa, or five-Mathnawis, four books of which he was able to complete.
(1) ‘Shirin wa Khusro’ was the first mathnawi in the “Khamsa-i-Ruhul Amin” was composed in 1018A.H, in imitation of Nizami’s poem of the same name. One of its manuscript is preserved in the Majlis Library, Tehran(29) and the other in the India Office Library, London.(30)
(2) ‘Matmahul Anzar’ being an imitation of Nizami’s ‘Makhzanul Asrar’ was Amin’s second Mathnawi. It comprises an epilogue in mixed prose and verse, praise of Allah, supplications, praise of the Holy Prophet of Islam (S.A.W.) and the Ahlul-Bayt (A.S.) and eulogy of Sultan.(31)
(3) “Laila Majnun”being the third Mathnawi of Amin’s Khamsa. Its two manuscripts are preserved one in the British Museum Londonty and the other in the India Office Library, London.(32)
(4)“Asman-i-Hashtum”(33) being the forth Mathnawi of Amin’s Khamsa was written in imitation of Nizam’s “Haft- Paikar”. It was started in the time of Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah but could be finished only after his death. It was therefore dedicated to the Sultan’s successor Muhammad Qutb Shah. One of its manuscripts is preserved in the BritishMuseumLondon
(5)We have no exact information about his fifth Mathnawi. Besides these Mathnawis, Mirza Amin composed a large number of lyrical poems and those written in the early period of his poetic career were compiled into a “diwan” which exists in three manuscripts. One in the British Museum, London City, the other in the India Office Library, London:City and the third in the Majlis Library, Tehran. His “diwan” is named Gulistan-i-Naz.(34).
Mulla Muin Mirak Sabazwari
Another great Iranian poet who was honored at Haidarabad was Mulla Muin Mirak Sabzwari, who began acting as envoy of Ahmadnagar sent to Haidarabad to felicitate Muhammad-Quli’s accession to the throne and then represented the Nizam Shahi Kingdom on being sent on the occasion of the marriage of the King’s daughter, Hayat Baksh Begum in 1016A.H/1607A.D.
It was probably after he had settled down at Haidarabad that the Sultan constructed his famous palace Khudadad Mahal.
Muin Sabzwari belonged to a distinguished family of Sabzwar in the Khurasan province, Iran country-region. He entered the services of Muhammad-Quli Qutb Shah and attained honorable positions in the royal court.(35) He was a poet of great repute during Muhammad-Quli’s reign. Sabzwari was a humorist and proved great fun and laughter in the jovial assemblies.(36)
Husain bin Ali Fursi Shaidani
The tradition of compiling a metrical chronicle of the Qutb Shahi dynasty which had begun in the reign of Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah was continued during the reign of his successor. (37).
Husain bin Ali Fursi compiled Nasab Namah Qutb Shahi or Nisbat Namah Shahryari during the reign of Muhammad-Quli Qutb Shah in 1019 A.H.
It is the metrical history of the Qutb Shahi dynasty from the beginning of the dynasty to the early period of Sultan Muhammad Qutb. This history is expressed in poetical form and comprises 18600 couplets(38). The work is divided into four parts: the first part is a kind of introduction and takes the reader up to the end of the Bahmani dynasty: the second takes him right up to the accession of Ibrahim: the third deals with the reign of Ibrahim, while the forth brings the history up to the compilation of the work. He based his Nasab Namah on the Shahnamah-i-Firdausi and it is heroic _expression of poet. (39).
Sultan Muhammad Qutb (1020 A.H./1612 A.D.-1034 A.H./1626 A.D.)
Muhammad Quli’s successor Sultan Muhammad Qutb was taught and brought up by Allama Mir Mumin Astarabadi, Peshwa-e-Sultanat. He therefore is known as Mujtahid and Faqih Sultan of the Qutb Shahi dynasty. Besides being a peace loving Sultan, he was a great lover of the books. He employed a large number of calligraphers to make copies of the books. His court companions were religious divines. It was he who stopped all the practices and customs contrary to religion. (40)
Allama Mir Muhammad Mumin Astarabadi, Vakil and Peshwa-e- Sultanat during Muhammad Quli and Muhammad Qutb’s reigns played very crucial role in the development and furtherance of Persian literature in the Qutb Shahi kingdom.
He was also an outstanding Persian poet. His ghazal is full of allusions to the land of his birth, Iran, and is reminiscent of some of the famous cities of that country like Isfahan and Shiraz. The ode he composed after the accession of Sultan Muhammad was presented to him immediately after his enthronement. There is again the ode composed on the festival of Idd-al- Azha,(41) 1020A.H/1613A.D., another on the birth of the Prince Muhammad Ali Mirza(42) and few lines in praise of the Sultan in the preface to the Risala-i- Miqdariyah(43). It deals with all the weights, distances and measures prevalent in the kingdom.
Mir Mumin was also the author of Kitab-i-Raj’at and wrote the preface to the Persian translation of the Arabic work Kathirul-Miamin,
which was ascribed to the eighth Shi’ite Imam, Ali ibn Musa ar- Reza(44).
Tarikh-i-Muhammad Qutb Shah
The famous book of the Qutb Shahi history was written by an anonymous writer. This book contains the history of the Qutb Shahi dynasty up to 1026A.H./ 1617A.D. six years after Muhammad-Quli Qutb Shah’s death. This book was compiled at the behest of Muhammad Qutb in 1025A.H.or 1026. (45)
The special literary significance of this work consists in this, that it has preserved a selection of Muhammad-Quli Qutb Shah’s poetry in its concluding portion. (46)As a complement to Tarikh Muhammad Qutb Shah
the history of the dynasty is brought right up to the end of the reign in Ma’athir-i Qutb Shahi compiled by Muhammad bin Abdullah Nishapuri.
Hakeem Rukna Kashi
Hakeem Ruknuddin Masud Kashi alias Hakeem Rukna-i-Masih was a famous physician and poet during Muhammad-Quli Qutb Shah’s period.
The author of Khazana-i-Amera writes that Hakeem Rukna Kashi was the author of one hundred couplets. Professor Devare writes that ‘’Hakeem Rukna Kashi is the author of Mathnawi, Majmua-e-Khayal comprising two thousand couplets. (47)
Rukhna Kashi in youth was personal friend and favorite of Shah Abbas Safawi-I. He was an outstanding physician and calligrapher. He is the author of ten diwans. His mathnawi Majmua-i-Khayal is available in the British Museum London
. The mathnawi was written by Rukna Kashi based on the model of Nizami’s “Khusro-wa- Shireen”. He is also the author of Saqi Namah. Rukna Kashi closely imitated the odes of Baba Fighani (48). He died in Mashhad in 1066A.H 1655-56A.D
Mulla Fazlullah Semnani
Mulla Fazlullah Husaini Semnani rendered “Rauzat-ur-Riyaheen” into Persian and named it “Nuzhat-ul-Uyun”. It is a book on the lives of Sufi saints and divines. Rauzat-ur-Riyaheen was translated into Persian by Mulla Semnani in 1026A.H./ 1626-27A.D. at the request of Sultan Muhammad Qutb (490
Mulla Husain Amuli
Mulla Husain Amuli was a great scholar who migrated to Haidarabad from the Mazandaran province (Iran) during the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah. He penned the Sharh-e-Nahjul Balagha in Haidarabad(50).
Zainuddin Ali Badakshi
Zainddin Ali Badakshi translated into Persian Shaikh Nasiruddin Tusi’s Arabic treatise Tajrid. It was completed in the reign of Sultan Muhammad Qutb. The translator also wrote a commentary on Tajrid and gave it the title of Tuhfa-i-Shahi. (51)
Shah Qazi Astarabadi
Shah Qazi, a famous Iranian poet from Astarabad near Isfahan:City, wrote Qasidah in praise of Sultan Muhammad Qutb in the book known as Kaseer-ul-Mayameen.(52)
Wisali Ardistani
Wisali Ardistani migrated from Ardistan near Isfahan City to Haidarabad during the reign of Sultan Muhammad Qutb. He was an author of Diwan in Persian.(53)
Ali Gul Astarabadi
Ali Gul Astarabadi, a distinguished Persian poet from Astarabad near Isfahan City came to Haidarabad during the reign of Sultan Muhammad Qutb and was partonised by Sultan and Allamma Mir Mumin, Peshwa-e-sultanat who also hailed from Astarabad(54).
Mulla Abdul Baqi Damavandi
Mulla Abdul Baqi hailed from Damavand (Iran). He came to Haidarabad during the last days of Muhammad-Quli Qutb Shah. As a Persian poet, he earned a great reputation in Haidarabad(55).
Amir Taqi Isfahani
Amir Taqi Isfahani also famous as Durkani visited Golkonda during the reign of Ibrahim Qutb Shah. He was an outstanding Persian poet. (56)
Tajalli Kashani
Muhammad Husain Kashani’s poetic name was Tajalli. He had been to Haidarabad during the reign of Muhammad-Quli Qutb Shah. (57).



Askari Kashani
Mir Hasan Askari hailed from Kashan. He visited Haidarabad during the reign of Muhammad-Quli Qutb Shah. His Saqi Namah best represent his poetry and it consists of 223 couplets in the praise of Imam Ali (A.S.).(58)
Qasim Arsalan Mashhadi
His name was Qasim and poetic name Arsalan. He hailed from Mashhad He joined the court of Adbullah Qutb Shah and enjoyed royal favors. (59)
Jalaluddin Nishapuri
He hailed from Nishapur and had been to Haidarabad during the reign of Sultan Muhammad Qutb.(60)
Sali Ardestani
Mirza Sali Ardestani came to Haiderabad during the reign of Sultan Muhammad Qutb .He was one of the famous Persian poet of Haidarabad during that reign. (61)
Ishrati Yazdi
Ishrati of Yazd died in Haidarabad in 1037A.H/1627A.D. He was an outstanding poet and contributed richly to Persian literature. (62)
Shams Dah Dah Isfahani
He was a poet and came to Golkonda during the second half of the sixteenth century and stayed there for considerable time.(63)
Syed Murad Isfahani
Syed Murad Isfahani had written short mathnawi on the city of Haidarabad.
There are many other works compiled in Persian during Muhammad Qutb’s reign on tasawwuf, ethics, and literature interspersed in the libraries of London,Calcutta, Bankipur and Haidarabad, which throw light on the avidity of the Court for gems of literature.
Abdullah Qutb Shah (1034 A.H./1626A.D-1083 A.H./1672A.D.)
Muhammad Qutb and his renowned wife Hayat Baksh Begum appointed some of the best teachers available to train prince Abdullah. His teachers were Iranians and Persian was the official language of the state as well as the language of communication among the learned. Thus, Abdullah’s court became rendezvous of scholars and writers from Iran. Great scholars from Iran hovered round him. A few of them are as follows: Allama Mir Majduddin, Allama Rounaqi, Qazi Ahsan, Mir Miran ,Hakim Abdul Jabbar Gilani ,Shaikh Abdul Lateef Nurullah, Mirza Muhammad Jowhar Tabrizi, Mirza Hamza Astarabadi, Mir Fazlullah Shirazi, Shaikh Harun, Mulla Taphtai Shirazi and Mulla Arab.(65)
Abdullah Qutb Shah(1626A.D-1672A.D) kept the traditions of his father alive and lavishly patronized the men of letters ,who came down to Haidarabad from Iran. Beside Allama Muhammad Ibn-e-Khatun Ameli, who was the Vakil and Peshwa-e-Sultanat and Riaz Astarabadi, who held a prominent post in administration ,there were other Iranians too whose list is very long. But the other most important Iranian scholars of his period are: Mulla Jamaluddin, Mulla Hussain Amuli, Nizamuddin Ahmed Shirazi, Syed Ali Masoom Shirazi, Muhammad Hussain Burhan Tabrizi, Muhammad Quli Jami, Razi Danish, Reza Quli Beg ‘Neknam Khan’, Hakeem Abdul Jabbar Gilani, Hakeem Nizamuddin Ahmed, Zulfiqar Sasani, Khalqi Shustari etc (66).
Beside the literary work, Abdullah’s reign is marked for a large number of books in religious literature. The Iranian scholars and divines like Shah Qazi Yazi, Nizamuddin Gilani, Ali Bin Taifoor Bustami, etc. wrote a number of books covering all aspects of religion(67).
Allama Shaikh Muhammad Ibn Khatun Ameli
One of the foremost among such scholars was Allama Shaikh Muhammad Ibn Khatun Ameli, who became the Peshwa-e-Sultanat.(68) He rose to such an eminence in the realm of knowledge that he came to be known as Hadrat Allama Fahami or “the most learned and full of wisdom”. He wrote four books Sharh-e-Irshad-ul-Azhan, Sharh-e-Arba’een(69), Jameh Abbasi(70), Kitab-al-Imamat. He held regular classes twice a day and delivered lectures on the commentaries of the Holy Quran, logic, philosophy and mathematics.
Mulla Muhammad Husain Burhan Tabrizi
He is the author of the well known Persian dictionary Burhan-i-Qatey and was an erudite and learned Persian scholar. He migrated from Tabriz Iran and settled in Haidarabad during the Abdullah Qutb Shah’s reign. He complied this famous Persian dictionary Burhan-i-Qatey at the behest of Abdullah Qutb Shah. Allamah Ibn Khatun Amuli, had great respect for Mulla Muhammad Husain Burhan Tabrizi. This monumental dictionary was completed in 1656A.D.in Haidarabad(71). This is one of the most standard works on Persian in lexicography compiled under the patronage of Abdullah Qutb Shah. This book has enjoyed wide reputation both in India and Iran. This dictionary had been printed in Calcutta, Bombay and Lucknow and the copy of it is at hand in every distinguished and reputed library in the world.
In the body of the books, words have been enumerated under each orthographical heading, the total number of words dealt with being 19,177. Burhan-i-Qatey is still one of the basic dictionaries of the Persian language. (72)
Mirza Nizamuddin Ahmed Saidi
Another Persian work of a permanent value complied during Abdullah Qutb Shah’s reign is Mirza Nizamuddin Ahmad Saidi’s, Hadiqat-us-Salatin. It is a detailed history of the first nineteen years of the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah and was written at the instance of the Peshwa-e-Saltanat, Shaikh Muhammad Ibn Khatun Ameli. It purports to be a day to day chronicle of the kingdom from Abdullah’s birth on 21-10-1023A.H/21-11-1614A.D to 26-12-1053A.H/25-2-1644A.D. It gives a correct picture of social life of the people and the administrative and the international set-up(73).
Mirza Nizamuddin Ahmed al-Saidi Shirazi was leading religious scholar and poet during the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah. He was also a leading professor at the Hawzah-i-Ilmia(Islamic Seminary) of Allama Shaikh Muhammad ibn Khatun in Haidarabad. He also occupied a respectable post in the court of Abdullah Qutb Shah.
He was also well versed in applied sciences like mathematics and astronomy. He wrote a book “Shajr-e-Danish” which includes 108 articles in various branches of sciences like mathematics and astronomy.
Kaukab Qazwini
Qubbad Beg Kaukab Qazwini came to Haidarabad during the reign of Sultan Muhammad Qutb and died in 1033A.H/1623A.D. and is buried in Dairah Mir Mumin cemetery in Haidarabad. He was a famous poet of his period and composed a “diwan” which is at present extinct. His poetry has a deep under-current of pessimism and a fatalistic pathos.(74).
Abdul Ali Taliqani
Haji Abdul Ali Talighani, a famous Iranian scholar hailed from the city of Talighan (Iran). He migrated to Haidarabad during the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah and attained the distinguished position of “Nazir-ul-Mamalik” which contains royal letters written by him during the service of Abdullah Qutb Shah. This book is great work in the art of letter-writing and correspondence in Persian. This book also gives an insight into the political, social and international conditions of the kingdom. The copies of the book are present in the Salar Jung Museum Library, Haidarabad and British Museum Library, London
He drafted letters of political and administrative nature on behalf of Abdullah Qutb Shah and Hayat Baksh Begum addressed to the Emperor Shah Jahan, Shah Abbas Safawi-II of Iran, Adil Shahs of Bijapur and the Mughul princes, Dara Shikoh, Aurangzeb, Muhammad Sultan as well as the grand-daughter of Shah Jahan and wife of Muhammad Adil Shah. Among the types of documents drafted by him, there are Farman, Kabin Nama,Wakalat Nama,Waqf Nama,diplomatic correspondence and belles letters.(75)
Above all the historical ‘Inqiyad Nama’ or the Deed of Submission executed by Abdullah Qutb Shah to the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan was drafted by him. In his writings, though he has dealt with a variety of subjects relating to politics, diplomacy, administration and culture, his individual style prevails in all these directions. His style manifests his two fold capacity of writing the most artificial prose on one hand and the practical on the other hand.
Abdul Azeem Taliqani
Abdul Azeem Taliqani succeeded his father Haji Abdul Ali Taliqani and was appointed as Dabir-ul-Mulk during the reign of Abul Hasan Qutb Shah. He too drafted all important foreign and international correspondence. His drafts include letters addressed to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, Shah Sulaiman Safavi of Iran, Sikander Adil Shah of Bijapur and the Prince Muhammad Moazzam and others.
His style was plain and ornate. He made a better room for Persian glosses than his father. He maintained a uniform style throughout by thinning the ceremonial baroque in the beginning or end. The contention expressed in his Insha prevails over the heaviness of diction and makes his writings more palatable than his father’s. His style keeps up freshness in every letter and does not become thick with any traditional or individual stereotype. Thus Abdul Azeem Taliqani’s style is more effective and artistic. (76)
Ali bin Taifoor Bustami
He was a famous historian of the Qutb Shahi period. He was patronized by Neknam Khan and wrote many books on history, biographies, ethics and mysticism. His famous works are:
1) Tuhfe-e-Mulki,(77) Persian rendering of Ibn-i-Babwaih Qummi’s Uyun-ul-Akhbar ar-Reza(A.S.).
2) Anwar-ul-Tahqiq, which contains extracts from the writing of the Sufi saint Khwaja Abdullah Ansari.(78)
3) The translation of Makarem-ul-Akhlaq.(79)
4) Risalah-i-Masoomah.
5) Tuhfa-tul-Gharaib, containing the traditions of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.), verdicts of the saints, acrimonious sermons of certain preachers and the advice of the learned.(80)
6) Ganj Nameh, the monumental work which explains the difficult words in the Shahnamah-i-Firdausi. It was compiled at the behest of Neknam Khan in 1079 Hijrah. It contains 174 folios.(81)
7) Sharah-i-Awamil.
8) Tuhfa-i-Qutb Shahi(82), written on the style of Gulistan which includes eight chapters and conclusion.
9) Hadaiq-us-Salatin: It is a very important treatise on the historical events during the reigns of Abdullah Qutb Shah and Abul Hasan Qutb Shah. It can be considered as magnum opus of Ali bin Taifoor Bustami. The copy of it in fine nastaliq script is preserved in Salar Jung Museum Library, Haidarabad. Its literary value is unique since it preserves poetical extracts of the Bahmanis and the Qutb Shahi sultans as well of other eminent poets of Iran and India. The notices of Mir Mumin Astarabadi and Mir Muhammad Amin Shahristani in this work are of great value.(83)
Mir Majduddin Astarabadi
Mir Muhammad Majduddin was the son of Allama Mir Muhammad Mumin Astarabadi(84). He was renowned scholar and poet during the Qutb Shahi period. According to the author of Hadaiq-us-Salatin, he was the author of Diwan, copy of it is at present extinct.(85)
Ulfati Yazdi
Maulana Ulfati Yazdi wrote about the events of Abdullah Qutb Shah in the form of a book known as “Rawa’eh-i-Gulshan Qutb Shahi”, which contains seven chapters. The copy of it is present in the Salar Jung Museum Library, Haidarabad.
Ulfati Yazdi is one of the distinguished writers during the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah(86). He wrote a Risalah on Ilm-ul-Arus in1048A.H, known as “Riyaz-ul-Za’eh Qutb Shah”i. The copies of the book are present in Bankipur Library, Patna; Asafia Library, Haidarabad, and Cambridge University Library, U.K.
Meer Razi
Meer Razi bin Meer Turab Razavi belonged to the Razavi Sadaat family of Mashhad Iran. He came to Haidarabad during Abdullah Qutb Shah’s period and settled in the city. He was a Persian poet of great standard and merit. His father Meer Turab died in Haidarabad in 1060A.H. and was buried in the Dairah Mir Mumin Astarabadi cemetery, the exclusive graveyard for the Iranian during the Qutb Shahi period.
In 1073A.H.,Abdullah Qutb Shah deputed Meer Razi as Nayeb-us-Ziarah, for the pilgrimage to the mausoleum of Imam Reza (A.S.), the eighth Shi’ite Imam. Meer Razi composed a Diwan which the author of Aatish Kade states that Diwan of Meer Razi consisted of one thousand couplets. But unfortunately the copy of it is extinct now. (87)
Shah Jami
Muhammad Shah Jami was born in Haidarabad in an Iranian family. He was a great scholar of Persian and Sanskrit during Abdullah Qutb Shah’s reign. He had translated “Koka Shastra” attributed to Pundit Koka of Kashmir form Sanskrit to Persian in1036A.H., during Abdullah’s reign(88).

Kismet Mashhadi
Muhammad Qasim Kismet Mashhadi migrated form Iran to Haidarabad during Abdullah Qutb Shah’s period. He was a great artisan as well as distinguished Persian poet (89).
Salik Yazdi
Salik Yazdi was a famous Persian poet who migrated to Haidarabad from Yazd (Iran) during the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah. He composed a Diwan, a copy of which is preserved in Salar Jung Museum Library, Haidarabad. A selection of his lyrical poetry is housed in the Bombay University Library. Azad Bilgrami and the author of Makhzan-ul-Gharaib had praised the poetical genius of Salik Yazdi. He composed about six thousand couplets. (90)
Farajullah Shushtari
Farajullah Shushtari belonged to a distinguished Sada’at family of Shushtar (Iran) and was author of a Diwan. Authors of Ma’asir al Kala’am, Riyaz-al-Shu’ara and Natayej-al-Afkar had applauded the outstanding lyrical merit of Farajullah Shushtari(91). He came to Haidarabad during the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah and attained a respectable position in his court. His Diwan contains about three to four thousand couplets. Gulam Ali Masoom, author of the famous “Salafat-ul-Asr” writes that Farajullah Shushtari was also an Arabic poet of great repute. The copies of his Diwan are present in the Bankipur Library, Patna and Asiatic Society Library, Calcutta
Hamza Astarabadi
Hamza Astarabadi came to Haidarabad from Iran during Muhammad Qutb’s reign. He attained the dignified position of Sarkhail during Abdullah Qutab Shah’s reign. He was a writer and poet of good repute but unfortunately his works are at present extinct(92).
Khalqi Shushtari
Shaikh Abdul Lateef Khalqi Shushtari was a distinguished religious scholar from Iran who reached Haidarabad in 997A.H. and attained high positions in the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah. He was an outstanding Persian poet and also lectured at the Darul Shifa Medical College in Haidarabad(93).
Husaini Kareem
Meer Muhammad Kazem Husaini Kareem, was a distinguished and famous Persian poet who migrated to Haidarabad form <st1:Iran during the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah. He had written a lengthy Qasidah, ode, in praise of Abdullah Qutb Shah which is famous as “Ganj Namah”. A copy of the Kulliyat of Hussaini Kareem is present in the British Museum Library. (94)
Bayan Isfahani
Mahdi Bayan Isfahani came to Haidarabad from Isfahan during the reign of Abdullah Qutb shah and was distinguished Persian poet.(95)
Neknam Khan
Mirza Reza Quli Beg Neknam Khan, an Iranian who held a honorable position in the administration of Shah Abbas Safavi’s court, migrated to Haidarabad and occupied distinguished administrative and military posts in the Qutb Shahi Kingdom
Neknam Khan was a strange combination of a man of sword and a man of pen. He patronized the men of letters, religious scholars and poets lavishly. Ali Bin Taifoor Bustami, one of the leading scholar of Abdullah Qutb Shah’s reign came to Haidarabad on the invitation of Neknam Khan and flourished under his patronization(96).
Akhtari Yazdi
Akhtari Yazdi was a great Persian poet who was also well versed in astronomy. He came to Haidarabad during Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah’s period and was associated with services of Mir Muhammad Amin Shahristani, Mir Jumla. He died in 1026A.H. and is buried in Langar Houz, Haidarabad (97).
Abdullah Amani
Abdullah Amani came from Mazandaran province Iran to Haidarabad during reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah and wrote a Diwan in Persian and also a book on medicine. The copy of his Diwan is still present in Indian Office Library, London.(98)
Muhammad Ali Jabalarudi
Muhammad Ali Jabalarudi was born in a village Jabalarud near Isfahan. He migrated to Haidarabad in 1054A.H. during the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah and entered the services of Allama Ibn Khatun Ameli. At behest of Allamah Ibn Khatun, he collected the “amsal” in Persian in 128 chapters famous as “Majma-al-Amsal”(99) or Jameh-ul- Tamseel”. It was compiled in 1054A.H. While explaining amsal, the author had described the historical events and anecdotes pertaining to the amsal. Professor Ethe calls this book as “Jameh-ul-Tamseel”. The original manuscripts of the book are present in Rampur Library, Berlin Library and Asafia Library, Haidarabad. It was printed in Tehran 1278A.H. and inBombay in 1291A.H. It is a voluminous work containing 205 folios.
Abdullah Nishapuri
Muhammad bin Abdullah Nishapuri came to Haidarabad during the reign of Muhammad-Quli Qutb Shah. He was a distinguished historian of the Qutb Shahi period and wrote a famous book on the events during the Qutb Shahi period known as “Ma’athir Qutb Shahi”.Professor Devare writes ‘This work is supplement to Tarikh-e-Muhammad Qutb Shah recording in details the history of Muhammad Qutb Shah’s reign till his death in 1035 Hijrah’. (100).
Shaikh Ahmed Jabel Ameli
Shaikh Ahmed Jabel Ameli came from Iran to Haidarabad during the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah. He translated the monumental work of Bahauddin Ameli’s ‘Kashkul’ into Persian in seven volumes in Haidarabad in 1101A.H. According to Professor Ethe, the copy of this book is present in the Indian Office Library, London (101)
Rounaqi Hamadani
Rounaqi Hamadani came from Iran to Haidarabad during the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah. He was also an author of Diwan running into 3,500 couplets. (102)
Munsif Isfahani
Ghiyasuddin Ali Munsif Isfahani was a didactic poet, writing plain and chaste poetry. He joined the Qutb Shahi services. His diwan was compiled posthumously by a friend of his. His Saqi Namah is highly ethical and reflective in tone and comprises five thousand verses. (103)
Reza Danish Mashhadi
Reza Danish was Razavi Sayyid of the holy city of Mashhad and son of a great poet Abu Turab Fitrat. He composed a mathnavi in praise of the holy cities and the mausoleum of Imam Reza (A.S) in Mashhad.(104) He arrived in Haidarabad in 1068A.H./1657-58A.D. As a Mashhadi Sayyid, he naturally command the reverence of the Qutb Shahi ruler and he was exalted to high rank.(105)
Jung-i-Qutb Shahi
It is a treatise on ethics and theology by an anonymous author who flourished in the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah. The manuscript of this book is preserved in the Andhra Pradesh Oriental Manuscript Library, Haidarabad. The work comprises 178 folios. (106)
Lama’at–e-Qutb Shahi
It is work on meteorology compiled by an Iranian named Ibn Husain bin Jamaluddin in the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah. The manuscript contains 61 folios (107).
Muizuddin Wafa Khan
Muizuddin Wafa Khan was an eminent Persian poet who migrated to Golkonda during Ibrahim-Quli’s reign. He is the author of “Parwane-i-Shikar”.(108)
Haji Hamadani
Haji Hamadani, a distinguished poet in Persian migrated from Hamadan (Iran) to Haidarabad during Sultan Muhammad Qutb’s reign and contributed to the advancement of Persian literature in the kingdom. (109)
Fikri Isfahani
Muhamman Reza Fikri Isfahani was a great scholar and poet in Persian. He was a minister under Muhammad Amin Shahristani and died in Haidarabad in 1002A.H/1593-94A.D.(110).
Zulfiqar Sasani
Zulfiqar Azar Sasani famous as Mobed is author of “Dabistan” a book written on various religions, creeds and sects. He arrived in Haidarabad from Iran Abdullah Qutb Shah’s reign and was patronized by Allama Ibn Khatun Ameli, Peshwa-e-Sultanat.(111)
Ulfati Savehji
Ulfati bin Husain Savehji wrote a book on prosody called Riyaz-us-Sana’I Qutb Shahi at the instance of Abdullah Qutb Shah in 1046A.H/1636A.D. this work covers 32 folios(112).
Mir Fazlullah Shirazi
He was great religious scholar and traditionalist ‘Muhaddith’. He was well versed in all the branches of knowledge and collected one thousand Apostolic Traditions in support of the Shi’ite faith. He translated ‘Al-Misbah’ into Persian.(113)
Safi Shirazi
Shaikh Muhammad Safi Shirazi came from Shiraz to Haidarabad during the reign of Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah where he was appointed as “Mir Munshi”. He was a famous Persian poet. He died in Haidarabad in 974A.H/1566-67A.D, and was buried in the Dairah-i-Mir Mumin cemetery.(114)
Fitrat Mashhadi
Mirza Abu Turb Fitrat Mashhadi came to Haidarabad during the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah and was favoured with a “mansab”. He was a Persian poet of great repute.He died in 1060A.H./ 1650A.D. and was buried in the Dairah-i-Mir Mumin cemetery.(115)
Wahshi Jaushqani
He was born in Kashan and was student of Maulana Muhtashim Kashi. He died in Haidarabad in 1013A.H/1604-5A.D. He wrote more than two thousand couplets of ghazal. (116)
Hukmi Shirazi
Mulla Hukmi Shirazi was the nephew of Urfi Shirazi. He had been to Haidarabad during Sultan Muhammad Qutb’s reign. He died in Haidarabad. (117)
Famous Iranian scholars in the court of Abdullah Qutb Shah who contributed beautiful chronogramatic verses on different occasions were Shaik Ahmed Jabal,(118) Mulla Arab Shirazi, Mulla Burhan Tabrizi,(119) Mulla Qutb-e-Adai,(120) Mir Khalilullah Husaini,(121) Mulla Mina-e-Gilani,(122) Mirza Ghiyas Khwish,(123) Qaiser Maddah(124) and Mulla Majlisi.(125)
Shaikh Harun Jazairi
He was a famous mujtahid (jurisprudent) and theologian during the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah. He taught fiqh for thirty years and died in 1047A.H/1638A.D. (126)
Abul Hasan Qutb Shah (1083 A.H./1672A.D-1098 A.H./1687A.D.)
The last ruler of the Qutb Shahi dynasty Abul Hasan Qutb Shah (1672A.D-1687A.D) was interested in many branches of knowledge and encouraged poets and writers but unfortunately he fell before the expanding might of the Mughal empire.The extinction of the Dakkani kingdoms at the hands of Aurangzeb closed the chapter of Persian art and learning in the Dakkan as a separate entity.
Ali bin Taifoor Bustami completed the compilation of Hadaiq-us-Salatin or the ‘Gardens of Kings’ in 1092 A.H/ 1681A.D , i.e. nine years after Abul Hasan Qutb Shah’s accession.He also wrote Tuhfa-e-Qutb Shahi) (127) relating to ethics during his reign.
Abul Hasan never lagged behind in the field of art and letters.His reign had reached the golden prime in the advancement of learning, especially Islamic theology. ‘Risalah Dar Akhlaq’, a treatise on ethics was written at the instance of Abul Hasan Qutb Shah.(128)
Ibne Imad
Ibne Imad the great scholar from Iran and wrote ‘Kirkha-tul-Ulema’ which is considered as master-piece in the Persian literature.This book embodies various arts and sciences.The book makes a comprehensive survey of all sciences and is a perpetual glory of the Qutb Shahi age.
This work consists of six volumes: the first is on Tafsir, the second on Hadith, the third on Fiqh, and was entitle Majma-ud-Daqaiq, the fourth was on ‘Causes of things’ and was entitled ‘Kashf al-Asrar’, the fifth was on Hikmat and the sixth on ‘Miscellaneous Arts and Sciences’. A copy of this work is available in the Salar Jung Museum Library, Haidarabad. He completed this work in Haidarabad in 1046A.H/1635A.D and consists of 263 folios. (129)
Mulla Muhazabbuddin Ahmed
During the reign of Abul Qutb Shah, the famous Iranian scholar in Haidarabad, Mulla Muhazabbuddin Ahmed wrote a commentary on the Quran entitled ‘Tafsir-ul-Quran’ in 1089A.H.He also wrote sixteen more treatises on various topics such as Islamic law, jurisprudence, traditions. (130)
Ali Husain Alkoh Khailavi
At the instance of Abul Hasan Qutb Shah, Ali Husain Alkoh Khailavi wrote ‘Hilyat-ul-Qari’, a book on the science of Quran elocution.Abul Hasan Qutb Shah himself was well versed in Quranic elocution and recited the Quran in the seven manners of pronunciation.
Tafsir-ul-Quran and Hilayat-ul-Qari (131) are regarded as magnum opus with regard to both their academic and bulk which redound to the memory of the scholar-king Abul Hasan Qutb Shah as also to the religious zeal of the age.
Insha (Epistolography)
Insha or epistolography is the foundation of all literary prose in Persian language.The art of prose writing termed as Insha pardazi was supposed to be a natural gift and an admirable faculty possessed by a writer.The art of prose writing was intrinsic as well as extrinsic.Every syllable of a writing was tied up with some principle and well-knitted with a larger fugal scheme. Every word had a careful usage. The meanings were extended, decorated and made full of imagery with the help of several figures. If the imagery involved in Qutb Shahi prose is distilled, it shall afford a more picturesque glimpse of the contemporary cultural traits than a painting or an architectural baroque. The asset of literary prose of Golkonda which is now extant is also coloured with individual stylistics.
The art of prose writing was called Insha and every stylistic pattern of Insha went after the name of its writer as “Insha-e-Tabasi” and “Insha-e-Taliqani” etc. Some of the prominent stylists are Mulla Qasim Tabasi, Haji Abdul Ali Taliqani, Shaikh Muhammad Ibn Khatun, Nizamuddin Ahmed Shirazi, Muhammad Kazim Karim, Ali bin Taifoor-al-Bustami and Abdul Azeem Taliqani.
In Qutb Shahi administration, there had been eminent epistolarians known as “Dabir-ul-Mulk” or “Mushi-ul-Mamalik. Several authors who held prominent position in the Qutb Shahi court are Mulla Qasim Tabassi, Abdul Jabbar, Muzaffar Ali, Haji Abdul Ali Taliqani, Shaikh Muhammad Ibn Khatun Ameli, Muhammad Reza Astarabadi and Abdul Azeem Taliqani. The rare collections of Insha of three prose writers, namely Mulla Qasim Tabassi, Haji Abdul Ali Taliqani and Abdul Azeem Taliqani are preserved. Some of the letters of Mir Muhammad Kazim Karim are also preserved.
Insha has been one of the strongest channels of Arabicising the Persian language during the 14th and 15th centuries A.D. It is with this retrospects, Persian Insha developed in the Qutb Shahi kingdom during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Thus, all the epistolographers during that reign were the Iranians who contributed immensely in this literary field.
Qissa Khawn (Fictionists)
The Iranian fictionists of the Qutb Shahi kingdom produced only romances and no novels. Eminent and skilled “Qissa Khawn” or story tellars are seen in the kingdoms who were Iranian migrants. (132)
Mulla Khalil “Qissa Khwan”(133) came from Iran to Haidarabad during the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah in 1047A.H.
Mullah Hamza Isfahani, (134) was another famous Iranian “Qissa Khawn” in Haidarabad during the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah. He was employed in the royal library. His picturesque narration of lighting has been categorized as “Dastan” or “Romance” by Nizammudin Shirazi.
The famous Iranian “Qissa Khawn” during the reign of Sultan Muhammad Qutb was Haji Qissa Khawn Hamadani. He brought with him several versions of the famous romance entitled “Dastan-e-Amir Hamza”. This romance has been lithographed in seven volumes in Tehran in 1274A.H
Tafsir (Exegesis)
There are instances of Tafsir in fragmentary forms written during the Qutb Shahi period.
The Tafsir-e-Surah-e-Hal Ata by Muizuddin Ardistani who wrote in the year 1044A.H/ 1634A.D, at the suggestion of Ibne Khatun Ameli and dedicated to Abdullah Qutb Shah.
The tafsir of selective verses, is found in different forms.It is in the form of an independent work compiled in an anthology as Sawame-ul-Malakut (135) of Shah Qazi Yazdi compiled in 1017A.H/ 1608A.D,during the reign of Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah,or Ayat-ul-Ahkam (136) a Persian rendition of Shah Qazi Yazdi’s work which he prepared in 1021A.H/ 1612A.D. for Sultan Muhammad Qutb Shah. Ibn Imad Rozbihan has classified Tafsir as one of the branches of Ma’arifat and has dealt with it in his scholarly work Khirqa-e-Ulama. (137)
Shah Qazi Yazdi’s translation of Ayat-ul-Ahkam in eight volumes each having several chapters in which there is Tafsir of each Ayat referred to therein.
Fiqh (Jurisprudence)
Shah Qazi Yazdi’s another important work is Fiqh-ul-Razavi. (138) This work is an explanation of an original Arabic work on Fiqh ascribed to the eighth Shi’ite Imam Ali bin Musa Reza (A.S.).This translation with notes and explanation, has been prepared by Shah Qazi Yazdi at the instance of Sultan Muhammad Qutb and was completed in 1029A.H/1620A.D.This was done under the supervision of Allama Mir Mumin Astarabadi, the Peshwa-e-Sultanat.
Aqaid (Ideology)
The earliest work on Islamic doctrine Aqaid during the Qutb Shahi period is Sirat-al-Mustaqeem wa Deen-e-Qawim, written during the reign of Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah.The other work on this subject is Usul-e-Khamsa-e-Imamiya.
The reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah is the richest period regarding the production of Aqaid literature.During his reign not only several important works of Aqaid were translated but many original works were also recorded in Persian.There are at least seven works of this period which have survived through the ravages of time and which exclusively deal with the subjects of Aqaid (ideology).
Muizuddin Muhammad, an eminent Iranian scholar in Haidarabad wrote Fauz-ul-Najat. (139) This voluminous work runs over 402 folios and has been divided into one Muqaddama, one main part and an epilogue.It mainly attempts at justifying Imam Ali’s (A.S.) claim to the Imamat and elaborately describes the significance of the eleven Shi’ite Imams succeeding Imam Ali(A.S).
Nikat-e-Duwan-o-Dudman-e-Qutb Shahi (140) written by Husain-al-Yazdi, who wrote it in the year 1054A.H/ 1634A.D with this chronographic title.This small treatise of 24 folios contains information on various aspects of the religious mind and practice of the Qutb Shahi rulers.It commences with the prophecies of Shah Nimatullah Kirmani and comes down to the period of Abdullah Qutb Shah.The author has described the interest of the Qutb Shahi rulers in the development of both Shi’ite and Sunni religious institutions.
Adiya (Prayer Manuals)
Iranian scholars of Golkonda prepared many manuals of prayers. Prayers are normally in Arabic language.But the compilers of the prayer manuals of the Qutb Shahi kingdom have compiled Arabic prayers with Presian translation and commentary on the significance of these prayers has been offered.There are four manuscript manuals on Adiya or prayers compiled during the Qutb Shahi reign.
The first manual entitled Sawame-ul-Malakut was compiled by Shah Qazi Yazdi in 1017A.H/ 1607A.D.The second important work in the translation of the famous Arabic manual of prayers is entitled Misbah-e-Kafami(141).The work with translation runs over 826 folios.This translation was prepared by Qazi Jamaluddin Fathullah bin Sadruddin Shirazi at the instance of Sultan Muhammad Qutb.
The third work is Riyaz-ul-Salikin Fi Sharh Sayyid al Abideen, a commentary on Imam Zainulabedin’s famous work on prayers called as Sahifah-e-Kamilah.
The fourth work is a translation of Bahauddin Ameli’s Miftah-ul-Falah made by Ali bin Taifoor al Bustami with the title Minhaj-ul-Najah.The codex runs over 127 folios and has been divided into one introduction and six chapters.Ali bin Taifoor al Bustami has added his own notes and comments to this translation.
Hikmah (Philosophy)
The intellectual elite in the Qutb Shahi kingdom who were mostly Iranian were conscious and responsive to the ideological developments in the contemporary Muslim world.The philosophic, the ethical and the mystic literature of Golkonda bears a testimony of this effect.These disciplines in Golkonda were mainly of oriental Islamic character.
Danish Name-e-Shahi, (142) which is the exclusive book on philosophy produced in the Qutb Shahi kingdom was written by Muhammad Amin bin Muhammad Sherif Astarabadi (d.1036A.H.)at the instance of Sultan Muhammad Qutb.The philosophy dealt with in this codex is theological.The author has derived information from authorities like Naseeruddin Tusi(d.1067A.H.),Jalaluddin Dawwani (d.908A.H./1502-3A.D), Razi(d.311A.H.) Syed Sharif Jurjani, Fareeduddin Taftazani (d.1510 A.D.)and several Muslim thinkers attached to scholastic group. He claims to have styled his work after the Arba’in of Fakhr-al-Razi and has divided the book in forty sections entiltled Faida or the benefit.
Another important work which exclusively relates to philosophy is the “Tadhkirat-ul-Hukama(143). This is a small Who’s Who of philosophers with a brief and useful introduction, written during the reign of Abdul Hasan Qutb Shah. The work introduces about forty-seven thinkers of Greece Rome Iran and Arabia. This biographical dictionary of the philosophers was written by Ismail bin Ibrahim Tabrizi.
Encyclopaedia
In 1035(A.H/ 1625A.D., a magnificent Persian encyclopaedia entitled “Nafa’is-ul-Funun Fi Ara’is-ul-Uyun(144) of Muhammad bin Mahmud al Amuli was copied and placed in the royal library. This work comprises a very scholary “muqaddama” and two parts. These parts have been divided in eighty-five chapters, each grouped under several “maqalas”. Every chapter deals with a special branch of knowledge.
Anthology
One of the great personal anthologies of the Qutb Shahi era is the “Shajar-e-Danish(145) written by Hakim Nizammuddin Ahmed Gilani, who was the court physician of Abdullah Qutb Shah and was famous as “Hakeem-ul-Mulk. The codex runs over 439 folios and comprises one hundred and eight items, which are of varied nature and cover a good variety of disciplines.
The famous personal anthology written by Shaik Bahauddin Ameli known as “Kashkul” was translated by Ahmed al Shahidi al Amuli at the instance of Abdulah Qutb Shah. The royal codex runs over 173 folios. (146)
Physics
During the Qutb Shahi period, the science of physics attained great progress.The properties, the causes and effects of material and metaphysical were dealt with by the author of ‘Nafa’is-ul-Funun’. Hakim Nizamuddin Gilani’s treatise No.14 and 22 also relate to physics. (147).
Mathematics
In view of grand architectural constructions and Nizamuddin Shirazi’s report of Massaahan (the Surveyors), “Zamin Paimayan” (the land measurers), mathematics was fairly in advanced stages in the Qutb Shahi period. The only available work on mathematics is the translation of Bahauddin Ameli’s(d., 1621-22A.D.) “Khulasat-ul-Hisab”.(148)
Indexes
The tradition of indexing and referencing was in vogue in the Qutb Shahi kingdom. “Hadiya-e-Qutb Shahi” (149) is one of the best examples of indexes. This is an index of the selective words of the Holy Quran alphabetically arranged together with reference to the Quranic chapter in which such words have occurred.
Other famous literary works accomplished by Iranian scholars are “Tarikh-e-Ganjina”. It is a comprehensive world history written in Haidarabad by an anonymous author. It was completed somewhere during the fourth decade of the eleventh century, during the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah. “Tarikh-e-Ganjina” is divided into an introduction and twelve books termed “Khizanahs,” the sub-division of which are called “Ganjinas”.(150)
“Jame-e-Mufidi” is an important work written by Mulla Muhammad Mufid Yazdi al-Mustaufi. He was in Haidarabad during the reign of Abul Hasan Qutb Shah but left for Delhi in 1088A.H/1677A.D.). He is the author of “Majalis-ul-Muluk, “Mukhtisar Mufid” and “Jame-e-Mufidi”, in three monumental volumes. He started the compilation of Jame-e-Mufidi in Haidarabad. The first volume deals with the history of Yazd. The second volume deals with the history of Safawid dynasty in Iran. The third volume is of an encyclopedic character which has been nicely edited by Iraj Afshar and published from Tehran in 1340A.H. He also wrote the famous gazetteer “Ausaf-ul-Amsar” in Haidarabad in the year 1091A.H/1680A.D.(151)
Primary Education
Ibrahim-Quli Qutb Shah started a kingdom wide campaign to rout out and eradicate illiteracy and universalize primary education.He established a network of schools in the kingdom where the students irrespective of caste, creed and religion were imparted basic and primary education.
Haidarabad’s Hawzah-Ilmea (Islamic Seminary)
By the sixteenth century, education system in Iran had developed at a large scale. The Safawids set it in a new direction of training Shi’ite divines and jurisprudents or “Mujtahids”.
The Islamic Seminaries or ‘Hawzah-i-Ilmea were instituted in Haidarabad and Qutb Shahi kingdom which served as an important agency for the diffusion of ideas and knowledge which had developed in Iranian environment.
There had been some notable Islamic seminaries or “Hawzah-i-Ilmea” in Haidarabad as “Madrasah-i-Ibn Khatun and Madrasah-i-Hayat Baksh Begum”. The curriculum taught at these Islamic seminaries included detailed courses of reflective ‘maqulat’ and narrative ‘manqulat’ branches of knowledge. The curriculum comprised “Tafasir”, the commentaries of Holy Quran, “Ahadith” the traditions of the Holy Prophet of Islam (S.A.W.). “Fiqh”, Islamic Jurisprudence, Philosophy, Logic, Mathematics, Arabic and Persian Literature. (152).
In 1595A.D, Muhammad-Quli Qutb Shah established ‘Madrasah-Darul Shifa’ or the Medical College in Haidarabad.
The colleges in Haidarabad produced great scholars like Mir-i-Miran son of Qazi Zahiruddin Muhammad, who rose to the position of royal epistolarian (Dabir-i-Huzur). He was first appointed as qazi of cantonment and later as ‘Dabir’ and the member of the “Majlis” in 1047A.H/1637A.D.(153)
The curricula for the education of princes was somewhat different and comprised the following subjects obviously in addition to curricula meant for common people.
1. Qawaid-i-Jahandari’ the art of governance.
2. Administration of justice.
3. Adab-i-Giti’ Comity of nations.
4. Qanun-i-Majlis’ the laws of Majlis.
5. Diwan Dar court procedure.
6. Marasim-i-Padshahi’Royal customs.
7. Ihtimam-i-Asakir military organization.
8. Tarbiyat-i-Nizami military training.
The language of education was Persian and the books of the syllabi were those written in Iran and most of the teachers in the schools and colleges of the Qutb Shahi kingdom were Iranians. Among the tutors of Abdullah Qutb Shah there were men like Mir Qutbuddin Nimatullah Shirazi, Syed Sharif Shahristani, Khwajah Muzaffer Ali and Maulana Syed Husain Shirazi.
A close observation of the situation reveals that <st1:country-region Iran was the source of intellectual light. It was a model and an ideal in education and administration or fairly well in all walks of life of the nobility and aristocracy. The educational set up organized for the nobility in the Qutb Shahi kingdom smoothened ways for the new generation competently to receive the changing ideas imported from Iran and in turn to make their own contribution.
Akhlaq (Ethics)
The best of the works relating to ethics produced in Qutb Shahi kingdom is perhaps “Tuhfa-i-Qutb Shahi” written by Ali Bin Taifoor Bustami. Among the other ethical works produced in the Qutb Shahi kingdom reference may be made to “Dastur-ul-Amal-i-Salatin”(154), “Risalah Dar Akhlaq(155) and “Resalah Shajar”.
During the Safawid era all the Islamic sciences were revised from Shi’ite point of view. Haidarabad followed Iran as a sincere disciple in all disciplines.
Eschatology
The Iranian scholars of Qutb Shahi kingdom like Muhammad Muqim bin Kamaluddin Husayn wrote a treatise Dar Tahqiq-i-Maad Wa Hashr-i-Ajsad, Ali bin Taifoor Bustami wrote “Risalah-i-Msdumiysh” and the author of “Usul-i-Kamsah” paid special attention to the propagation of Islamic eschatology and contributed considerable literature projecting it as a very important issue.
There had been hardly any Iranian scholar of Qutb Shahi kingdom who contributed to the religious and ethical literature and should have over looked a discussion on justice(Adl).
There is a sizeable volume of literature relating to the interpretation of the Holy Quran, the traditions (Hadith) and jurisprudence (Fiqh) produced in Haidarabad or imported from Safawid Iran which reveals many more specialized aspects of Islamic thoughts and values diffused in Haidarabad. That had been done both by the Sufis through their mystic mission as well as by the Iranian elites through their control of administrative, judicial and educational institutions in their own ways.
Education in the Qutb Shahi kingdom was common for everybody. The Hindus in the kingdom learned craft pertaining to their hereditary caste.(156) The practice of Sati was prohibited and women were prevented from burning themselves on the funeral pyres of their husband.(157)
Tibb (Medicine)
The Qutb Shahi rulers patronized “Unani” (Greek) medicine by inviting eminent physicians from Iran, encouraging medicinal researches by establishing medical institutions. The “Unani” medicine found its way in the kingdom through the efforts of Iranian physicians ‘Hakims’ who were all the experts of Greco-Arab medicines. Almost all the “Unani” medicinal system had come from Iran. Many of them were officially invited by the Qutb Shahi sultans. The Unani system made great stride in Haidarabad. There had been constant inflow of eminent physicians from Iran and so Iranian medicine became an important import commodity of the foreign trade of Haidarabad. The Qutb Shahi kingdom had been one of the Greco-Persian ‘Unani’ medicine during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Hakim Ismail
He was attached to the court of Abdullah Qutb Shah and attended the aristocracy.(158) Other famous Iranian physicians in the Qutb Shahi kingdom were Hakim Shamsuddin Ali al-Husaini, Hakim Saifuddin Muhammad, Hakim Jabbar, Mirza Abdul Qasim, Kareem Yazdi, and Khulqi Shushtari.
Hakim Nizamuddin Gilani
He was perhaps the greatest of the medical scholars of Haidarabad. He hailed form Gilan and was student of Baha’uddin Ameli (d1031A.H/1621A.D) and Shamsuddin Muhammad Baquer Damad (d. 1040A.H/1630A.D). In the year 1044A.H/1634A.D), he was invited by Abdullah Qutb Shah and appointed as the Royal Physician. He was considered as “Hakim-ul-Mulk” of the kingdom.
“Hakim-ul-Mulk” contributed to the promotion of ‘Unani’ medicine in Haidarabad in many ways. He was a versatile person. He served Haidarabad as a physician, a scholar, and as an ambassador. He died in Haidarabad.(159)
“Makhzan-e-Tibb-e-Qutb Shahi”(160) discovered by Dr. Syed Muhammad Quadri Zore, who contended that it belonged to the Qutb Shahi period. It is an excellent work of pathology and therapeutics. Its author was a student of Maulana Ataullah Kurdistani. The work has been divided into chapters relating to various categories of diseases.
“Ikhtiyarat-e-Qutb Shahi’(161) of Mir Muhammd Mumin Astarabadi and Mizan-ul-Tabai Qutb Shahi’(162) of Taqiuddin Muhammad bin Sadruddin Ali were written at the instance of Sultan Muhammad Qutb are two books on medical sciences complied during the Qutb Shahi period.
“Tadhkirah-al-Kahhalin”(163) ( a note for occultists) was translated in Hiadarabad at the instance of Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah. The translator of this book is Shamsuddin Ali al-Husaini al-Jurjani.
Hygiene
A unique manual of hygiene was compiled by Hakim Shamsuddin bin Nuruddin during the reign of Muhammad-Quli Qutb Shah. This manual is entitled “Zubdat-al-Hukam”(164) Another hygienic manual is entitled ‘Farid’(165). It was written by Hakim Abdullah at the instance of Muhammad-Quli Qutb Shah.
Medicinal Research
Studies in different branches of medicinal science were encouraged in Haidarabad. Such studies were carried out either by directly indulging into a research project or by translating authoritative Arabic works into Persian. It imported the traditional system of Iran and introduced it at a large scale in the Sultanate. The scientific interest shown by the physicians of Haidarabad appears to have been centered round pharmacology.
In this discipline of pharmacology attention has been paid to introduce the Greco-Arab methods of assaying both simple and compound drugs. In that effort many such drug ingredients were introduced which were found in Iran
The standard forms of ‘Unani’ compound drugs introduced in Haidarabad were: a) Electuaries ‘Maajin, b) Liquids ‘Araq’, c) Powder ‘Sufuf, d) Tablets ‘Qurs’ e) pills ‘Hubub’ f) Ointments ‘Marham’
An enormous fund of recipes suggesting all sorts of compound medicine to cure various diseases was imported from Iran and assayed in Haidarabad
The Iranian physicians in Haidarabad laid much emphasis on observing the principles of sound habits and hygiene. Hygienic slogans for the upkeep of health were formulated and manuals for maintaining health were written.
Major medical institution founded during the reign of Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah was the Darul Shifa which was run by the government. Darul Shifa had been a hospital with medical college and several other ancillary institutions like hostels ,mosques ,caravanserai and hamman(bath).It was constructed in 1004A.H/1595A.D.(166)
Even administrators and monarch like Abdullah Qutb Shah had their own laboratories. Various ‘Hakims’ maintained private medical institutions.
In Darul Shifa general hospital which was established in 1595A.D in Haidarabad, nearly three hundred and fifty patients were lodged and fed at the expense of the government. Apart from the great state hospitals like Darul Shifa,at Haidarabad ,the state kept salaried ‘Hakims’ and ‘vaids’ ‘Ayurvedic physicians’ in different towns at its expense, and they were commanded not to charge the patients for treatment.(167)
Thus the Iranian physician in the Qutb Shahi kingdom dominated the medical research and treatment in the kingdom. They were greatly respected in the kingdom by the rulers, nobility and the people. They even occupied key administrative positions. Thus the Iranian physicians and pharmacologists outstanding contribution to the system of health and hygiene in the kingdom is immense. The efforts of the Iranian physicians in Haidarabad paved the way for the further advancement of ‘Unani’ medicine in the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent.
Conclusion
Thus due to the Qutb Shahi Sultans patronage, the Iranian scholars in the kingdom compiled vast volumes of books on every aspect and fields of science and knowledge. Due to there incessant endeavors Haidarabad became one of the greatest seats of learning during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries A.D. The Iranian scholars in Golkonda strengthened their cultural, ideological, commercial, political and religious ties with Safawid Iran, which also helped in the rapid progress and evolution of Persian literature and Islamic-Iranian culture in Haidarabad and Dakkan.
Abbreviations
Devare Devare, T.N: A Short History of Persian Literature, Poona, 1961
Ethe Ethe: Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts in the India Office Library, London
H.A Mir Alam, Abu Turab: Hadiqatul Alam.

Hadaiq Ali bin Taifur al-Bustami: Hadaiq us-Salatin fi Kalam ul-Qawaqeen, MSS.No, 213, Salar Jung Museum Library, Haidarabad.
Hadiqa Nizamuddin Ahmad


Compiled by:
Dr. Hyder Reza Zabeth PhD
Islamic Research Foundation
Astan Quds Razavi [the Holy Shrine of Imam Reza (A.S.): CityMashhad


 

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